International Journal of Economic, Business and Applications (IJEBA), is an international peer-reviewed journal that is published bi-annually ( in June, and November), by Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Riau.
IJEBA seeks to publish high quality, scholarly empirical journal articles that are related to economics, business and its applications. The journal strives to serve as a major vehicle for the exchange of ideas and research studies among business and economics scholars internationally.

International Journal of Economic, Business and Applications (IJEBA) is a scientific periodical journals that managed by peer-review, in which other scientists (peer-review) evaluate the article’s value and credibility before published. This journal is dedicated to publish scientific articles in the study of economics from different aspects and perspectives as well as the themes that have been determined.

This journal is available in print with ISSN: 2477-1244, and online with ISSN: 2477-1236.

IJEBA committed to keep maintaining the high ethical standard in scientific publication include the peer-review, author, journal editor, and publisher.

Author(s) retain the copyright of articles published in this journal, with first publication rights granted to IJEBAAll journal content is licenced under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Vol 8, No 2 (2023)

Table of Contents


Gillian Woodward, Garrett Nicholson, Kate Head, Drew Carter, Drew Pearson, James Ondracek, Mohammad Saeed, Adesuwa Erude, Karli Peterson, Andy Bertsch
Siti Aisyah
Gading Mustafa, Edyanus Herman Halim, Haryetti Haryetti
Alif Husen